Chemistry - Theses, Dissertations, and other Required Graduate Degree Essays

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Towards the fast neutron-induced isotope production of 99mTc via the 102Ru(n,α)99Mo reaction.

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-08-25
Abstract: 

Radioactive isotopes are widely used in medicine for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.The most commonly used isotope is technetium-99m (99mTc), a product of β-decay of a molybdenum-99 (99Mo) nucleus, which is currently commercially produced using nuclear reactors. An alternative method of medical grade radioisotope production is required to sustain the demand as nuclear reactors are decommissioned. The proposed method of isotope production which will be discussed in this thesis is to use fast neutrons (∼14.1 MeV) to induce an 102Ru(n,α)99Mo reaction. The Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) at Simon Fraser University (SFU) has a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) Thermo Fisher P385 Neutron Generator (NG) which will be used for the neutron production, as well as ‘state of the art’ gamma ray spectrometers that will be used for experimental analysis. A series of experiments are discussed in this thesis to prove the viability of fast neutron induced isotope production.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Structural insights into f-block heterobimetallic dicyanoaurate coordination polymers

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-16
Abstract: 

The first series of uranyl ([UO2]2+)-dicyanoaurate coordination polymers has been synthesized and characterized. The diversity of structures generated demonstrates the flexibility of uranyl and dicyanoaurate as building blocks. Small changes in solvent, reactions conditions, dicyanoaurate salt, and ancillary ligands lead to a wide range of structures, ranging from molecular compounds, to a series of one-dimensional chains (including a ladder with alternating aurophilic and peroxo rungs), to a two-dimensional network of aurophilic and hydrogen-bonds, and an unusual three-dimensional lattice of tetranuclear uranyl-oxo-nitrate clusters connected by dicyanoaurate linkers, with the rotation of the clusters providing the increased dimensionality. This final material undergoes a reversible single-crystal to single-crystal transformation on exposure to or removal from water vapour. The luminescence properties of these materials have been found to range from no detectable emission, to only the uranyl-based emission being detected, to both uranyl and either Au(I) or aurophilic emission being detected. Building on this f-block chemistry, a series of lanthanide-dicyanoaurate-2,2′-bipyridine dioxide (OOBipy) coordination polymers has been created with the formula Ln(OOBipy)2(H2O)x(Au(CN2)3)·yEtOH·zH2O, where x and y = 0–2, and z = 0–4. It is possible to convert between these coordination polymers by the addition of heat or water vapour. The coordination polymers containing Sm, Eu, and Tb were found to be emissive, and those with only Eu or Tb were found to have excellent quantum yields. Attempts to create blended materials of Eu and Tb lead to the quenching of Tb’s emission, and blending of Sm and Tb produced lackluster quantum yields. A procedure to export ellipsoidal crystallographic data to 3D printing file formats was documented. This method gives the ability to export structures from the CCDC’s Mercury to 3D printing file formats, allowing 3D ellipsoidal models to be printed quickly and easily. This has been demonstrated using the uranyl-peroxo coordination polymer mentioned above. Additionally, a method of 3D printing complex or challenging structures by breaking them into parts with connectors, printing each part separately, and then assembling the structure post-printing was developed. This has advantages such as multicoloured printing, framework optimization and reduction, print time reduction, and can be used to bypass print size limitations.

Document type: 
Thesis
Supervisor(s): 
Daniel B. Leznoff
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) Ph.D.

Investigations of a=34 nuclei through fusion evaporation using the GALILEO spectrometer

Author: 
Date created: 
2021-12-08
Abstract: 

The nuclear shell model has accurately predicted many experimental trends in the atomic mass region of A=20-60 and beyond. One way to examine this model is by studying mirror nuclei–which have exchanged numbers of protons and neutrons. Differences between the analogue nuclear energy levels and their decay patterns in mirror nuclei are key in quantifying isospin symmetry in the nuclear force. Of particular interest is studying the neutron deficient 34Ar and compare its structure to its mirror nucleus 34S. Whilst 34S has been extensively studied, 34Ar has only been studied at comparatively low energies. In addition, shell model calculations of mirror energies for A=34 Ar-Cl-S seem to disagree with available experimental data. A fusion evaporation experiment was conducted at the Laboratori Nazionali Legnaro (LNL – INFN) in 2015 using a 12C beam to bombard a stationary 24Mg target. The intent was to observe 34Ar in high spin states by observing the 2 neutron channel. Other stronger channels were opened in this reaction which produce a high background, making observing the 34Ar spectrum difficult. Gamma rays were detected by the GALILEO array composed of 25 High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. The EUCLIDES charged particle detector associates charged particles being evaporated, whilst the neutron wall array tagged neutrons. Coincident events between the charged particles, neutrons, and gamma rays are used to create spectra of specific nuclei. The 2p reaction channel, associated with 34S, and pn reaction channel, associated with 34Cl, are analyzed and verified against known transitions in both nuclei. Contamination from other reaction channels complicated the analysis, as transitions from competing channels often overlapped. The 34Ar nucleus was not found in sufficient quantities to be detected, with the experimental reaction cross section calculated to be less than 91 μb.

Document type: 
Thesis
File(s): 
Supervisor(s): 
Corina Andreoiu
Department: 
Science: Department of Chemistry
Thesis type: 
(Thesis) M.Sc.