Chemistry, Department of

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Synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-mannopyranoside and development of a coupled fluorescent assay for GH125 exo-α-1,6-mannosidases

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2013-08-15
Abstract: 

Certain bacterial pathogens possess a repertoire of carbohydrate processing enzymes that process host N-linked glycans and many of these enzymes are required for full virulence of harmful human pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pneumoniae. One bacterial carbohydrate processing enzyme that has been studied is the pneumococcal virulence factor SpGH125 from S. pneumoniae and its homologue, CpGH125, from C. perfringens. These exo-α-1,6-mannosidases from glycoside hydrolase family 125 show poor activity toward aryl α-mannopyranosides. To circumvent this problem, we describe a convenient synthesis of the fluorogenic disaccharide substrate 4-methylumbelliferone α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-mannopyranoside. We show this substrate can be used in a coupled fluorescent assay by using β-mannosidases from either Cellulomonas fimi or Helix pomatia as the coupling enzyme. We find that this disaccharide substrate is processed much more efficiently than aryl α-mannopyranosides by CpGH125, most likely because inclusion of the second mannose residue makes this substrate more like the natural host glycan substrates of this enzyme, which enables it to bind better. Using this sensitive coupled assay, the detailed characterization of these metal-independent exo-α-mannosidases GH125 enzymes should be possible, as should screening chemical libraries for inhibitors of these virulence factors.

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Reduced Protein O-glycosylation in the Nervous System of the Mutant SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2012-05-16
Abstract: 

Human O-GlcNAcase plays an important role in regulating the post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues with β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide unit (O-GlcNAc). The mechanism of O-GlcNAcase involves nucleophilic participation of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate to displace a glycosidically linked leaving group. The tolerance of this enzyme for variation in substrate structure has enabled us to characterize O-GlcNAcase transition states using several series of substrates to generate multiple simultaneous free-energy relationships. Patterns revealing changes in mechanism, transition state, and rate-determining step upon concomitant variation of both nucleophilic strength and leaving group abilities are observed. The observed changes in mechanism reflect the roles played by the enzymic general acid and the catalytic nucleophile. Significantly, these results illustrate how the enzyme synergistically harnesses both modes of catalysis; a feature that eludes many small molecule models of catalysis. These studies also suggest the kinetic significance of an oxocarbenium ion intermediate in the O-GlcNAcase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosaminides, probing the limits of what may be learned using nonatomistic investigations of enzymic transition-state structure and offering general insights into how the superfamily of retaining glycoside hydrolases act as efficient catalysts.

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Article
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Visualizing the Reaction Coordinate of an O-GlcNAc Hydrolase

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2010-01-12
Abstract: 

N-Acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins (O-GlcNAc) has been linked to neurodegeneration, cellular stress response, and transcriptional regulation. Removal of O-GlcNAc is catalyzed by O-GlcNAcase (OGA) using a substrate-assisted catalytic mechanism. Here we define the reaction coordinate using chemical approaches and directly observe both a Michaelis complex and the oxazoline intermediate.

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Probing Synergy between Two Catalytic Strategies in the Glycoside Hydrolase O-GlcNAcase Using Multiple Linear Free Energy Relationships

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-08-28
Abstract: 

Human O-GlcNAcase plays an important role in regulating the post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues with β-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine monosaccharide unit (O-GlcNAc). The mechanism of O-GlcNAcase involves nucleophilic participation of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate to displace a glycosidically linked leaving group. The tolerance of this enzyme for variation in substrate structure has enabled us to characterize O-GlcNAcase transition states using several series of substrates to generate multiple simultaneous free-energy relationships. Patterns revealing changes in mechanism, transition state, and rate-determining step upon concomitant variation of both nucleophilic strength and leaving group abilities are observed. The observed changes in mechanism reflect the roles played by the enzymic general acid and the catalytic nucleophile. Significantly, these results illustrate how the enzyme synergistically harnesses both modes of catalysis; a feature that eludes many small molecule models of catalysis. These studies also suggest the kinetic significance of an oxocarbenium ion intermediate in the O-GlcNAcase-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucosaminides, probing the limits of what may be learned using nonatomistic investigations of enzymic transition-state structure and offering general insights into how the superfamily of retaining glycoside hydrolases act as efficient catalysts.

Document type: 
Article
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Mislocalization of TDP-43 in the G93A Mutant SOD1 Transgenic Mouse Model of ALS

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-04-18
Abstract: 

Previous evidence demonstrates that TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) mislocalization is a key pathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally shows nuclear localization, but in CNS tissue from patients who died with ALS this protein mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. Disease specific TDP-43 species have also been reported to include hyperphosphorylated TDP-43, as well as a C-terminal fragment. Whether these abnormal TDP-43 features are present in patients with SOD1-related familial ALS (fALS), or in mutant SOD1 over-expressing transgenic mouse models of ALS remains controversial. Here we investigate TDP-43 pathology in transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutant form of SOD1. In contrast to previous reports we observe redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm of motor neurons in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, but this is seen only in mice having advanced disease. Furthermore, we also observe rounded TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions associated with intense ubiquitin immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord at end stage disease in mSOD mice. These data indicate that TDP-43 mislocalization and ubiquitination are present in end stage mSOD mice. However, we do not observe C-terminal TDP-43 fragments nor TDP-43 hyperphosphorylated species in these end stage mSOD mice. Our findings indicate that G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulate some key pathological, but not all biochemical hallmarks, of TDP-43 pathology previously observed in human ALS. These studies suggest motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1 transgenic mice is associated with TDP-43 histopathology.

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Enzymatic Characterization and Inhibition of the Nuclear Variant of Human O-GlcNAcase

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-06-12
Abstract: 

Increasing cellular O-GlcNAc levels through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase, the enzyme responsible for removal of the O-GlcNAc post-translational modification, is being increasingly used to aid in discerning the roles played by this form of intracellular glycosylation. Interestingly, two forms of O-GlcNAcase have been studied; a full-length isoform that is better characterized, and a shorter nuclear-localized variant, arising from failure to splice out one intron, which has not been as well characterized. Given the increasing use of O-GlcNAcase inhibitors as research tools, we felt that a clear understanding of how these inhibitors affect both isoforms of O-GlcNAcase is important for proper interpretation of studies making use of these inhibitors in cell culture and in vivo. Here we describe an enzymatic characterization of the nuclear variant of human O-GlcNAcase. We find that this short nuclear variant of O-GlcNAcase, which has the identical catalytic domain as the full-length enzyme, has similar trends in a pH-rate profile and Taft linear free energy analysis as the full-length enzyme. These findings strongly suggest that both enzymes use broadly similar transition states. Consistent with this interpretation, the short isoform is potently inhibited by several previously described inhibitors of full-length O-GlcNAcase including PUGNAc, NAG-thiazoline, and the selective O-GlcNAcase inhibitor NButGT. These findings contrast with earlier studies and suggest that studies using O-GlcNAcase inhibitors in cultured cells or in vivo can be interpreted with the knowledge that both these forms of O-GlcNAcase are inhibited when present.

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Molecular Basis for Inhibition of GH84 Glycoside Hydrolases by Substituted Azepanes: Conformational Flexibility Enables Probing of Substrate Distortion

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2009-03-30
Abstract: 

Here we report the synthesis of a series of polyhydroxylated 3- and 5-acetamido azepanes and detail the molecular basis of their inhibition of family 84 glycoside hydrolases. These family 84 enzymes include human O-GlcNAcase, an enzyme involved in post-translational processing of intracellular proteins modified by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine residues. Detailed structural analysis of the binding of these azepanes to BtGH84, a bacterial homologue of O-GlcNAcase, highlights their conformational flexibility. Molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics calculations reveal that binding to the enzyme involves significant conformational distortion of these inhibitors from their preferred solution conformations. The binding of these azepanes provides structural insight into substrate distortion that likely occurs along the reaction coordinate followed by O-GlcNAcase during glycoside hydrolysis. This class of inhibitors may prove to be useful probes for evaluating the conformational itineraries of glycosidases and aid the development of more potent and specific glycosidase inhibitors.

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Synthesis and Use of Mechanism-Based Protein-Profiling Probes for Retaining β-d-Glucosaminidases Facilitate Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa NagZ

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2007-12-08
Abstract: 

The NagZ class of retaining exo-glucosaminidases play a critical role in peptidoglycan recycling in Gram-negative bacteria and the induction of resistance to beta-lactams. Here we describe the concise synthesis of 2-azidoacetyl-2-deoxy-5-fluoro-beta-d-glucopyranosyl fluoride as an activity-based proteomics probe for profiling these exo-glycosidases. This active-site directed reagent covalently inactivates this class of retaining N-acetylglucosaminidases with exquisite selectivity by stabilizing the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. Inactivated Vibrio cholerae NagZ can be elaborated with biotin or a FLAG-peptide epitope using the Staudinger ligation or the Sharpless-Meldal click reaction and detected at nanogram levels. This ABPP enabled the profiling of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteome and identification at endogenous levels of a tagged protein with properties consistent with those of PA3005. Cloning of the gene encoding this hypothetical protein and biochemical characterization enabled unambiguous assignment of this hypothetical protein as a NagZ. The identification and cloning of this NagZ may facilitate the development of strategies to circumvent resistance to beta-lactams in this human pathogen. As well, this general strategy, involving such 5-fluoro inactivators, may prove to be of general use for profiling proteomes and identifying glycoside hydrolases of medical importance or having desirable properties for biotechnology. 

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Size Fractionation of Titania Nanoparticles in Wild Dittrichia viscosa Grown in a Native Environment

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2020-06-15
Abstract: 

We report a size fractionation of titania (TiO2) nanoparticles absorbed from the environment and found within wild Dittrichia viscosa plants. The nanoparticles were isolated by extraction and isolation from distinct plant organs, as well as from the corresponding rhizosphere of wild, adult plants. The collected nanoparticles were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). More than 1,200 TiO2 nanoparticles were analyzed by these techniques. The results indicated the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles with a wide range of sizes within the inspected plant organs and rhizospheres. Interestingly, a size selective process occurs during the internalization and translocation of these nanoparticles (e.g., foliar and root uptake), which favors the accumulation of mainly TiO2 nanoparticles with diameters <50 nm in the leaves, stems, and roots. In fact, our findings indicate that among the total number of TiO2 nanoparticles analyzed, the fraction of the particles with dimensions <50 nm were 52 of those within the rhizospheres, 88.5% of those within the roots, 90% of those within the stems, and 53% of those within the leaves. This significant difference observed in the size distribution of the TiO2 nanoparticles among the rhizosphere and the plant organs could have impacts on the food chain, and further biologicals effects that are dependent on the size of the TiO2.

Document type: 
Article

Identification of Asp174 and Asp175 as the Key Catalytic Residues of Human O-GlcNAcase by Functional Analysis of Site-Directed Mutants

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2006-02-24
Abstract: 

O-GlcNAcase is a family 84 â-N-acetylglucosaminidase catalyzing the hydrolytic cleavage of â-O-linked 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glycopyranose (O-GlcNAc) from serine and threonine residues of posttranslationally modified proteins. O-GlcNAcases use a double-displacement mechanism involving formation and breakdown of a transient bicyclic oxazoline intermediate. The key catalytic residues of any family 84 enzyme facilitating this reaction, however, are unknown. Two mutants of human O-GlcNAcase, D174A and D175A, were generated since these residues are highly conserved among family 84 glycoside hydrolases. Structure-reactivity studies of the D174A mutant enzyme reveals severely impaired catalytic activity across a broad range of substrates alongside a pH-activity profile consistent with deletion of a key catalytic residue. The D175A mutant enzyme shows a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency with substrates bearing poor leaving groups (up to 3000-fold), while for substates bearing good leading groups the difference is much smaller (7-fold). This mutant enzyme also cleaves thioglycosides with essentially the same catalytic efficiency as the wild-type enzyme. As well, addition of azide as an exogenous nucleophile increases the activity of this enzyme toward a substrate bearing an excellent leaving group. Together, these results allow unambiguous assignment of Asp174 as the residue that polarizes the 2-acetamido group for attack on the anomeric center and Asp175 as the residue that functions as the general acid/base catalyst. Therefore, the family 84 glycoside hydrolases use a DD catalytic pair to effect catalysis.

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