Psychology, Department of

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The treatment of conduct disorder: Perspectives from across Canada

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1997
Abstract: 

Provides a synopsis of treatment programs for conduct-disordered children in Canada. Five groups of authors from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick describe their approaches to the treatment of children with conduct disorder. All programs emphasize the need to use multimodal treatment schemes, including day and short-term residential care, as well as the need to base programs on identified factors associated with the development of conduct disorder.

Document type: 
Article

Relational self-regulation: Gender differences in risk for dysphoria

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Examined gender differences in the level and psychological significance of discrepancy with own ideal standards (ISs) vs ideal standards held by parents and close others. 190 undergraduates completed the Selves Questionnaire, an interpersonal contingency beliefs measure, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Women showed higher levels of discrepancy with their own ISs than with the inferred ISs of parents and close others, suggesting that women may seek congruency with others' hopes and wishes at the price of failing to attain their own aspirations. Men showed equal levels of discrepancy with their own and significant-other ISs. Discrepancy with own ISs was associated with increased dysphoria in both men and women, but discrepancy with others' ISs was associated with significantly elevated levels of dysphoria only in women. Beliefs that failing to meet others' standards would result in abandonment and rejection contributed independently from discrepancy in predicting dysphoria. The findings suggest that the tendency to modulate affect, self-esteem and behavior from a relational perspective may increase risk for psychological distress. Women may be more likely to adopt this regulatory style as a function of their socialization experiences.

Document type: 
Article
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Sociotropy, Autonomy, and Self-Discrepancy: Status in Depressed, Remitted Depressed, and Control Participants

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Examined the status of sociotropy, autonomy, and self-discrepancy in 28 clinically depressed (mean age 37.5 yrs), 20 remitted depressed (mean age 37 yrs), and 20 control individuals (mean age 30 yrs). Results from the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; C. J. Robins et al, 1990) and the Selves Questionnaire (E. T. Higgins et al, 1986) indicated that depressed, remitted, and control participants differed significantly in their levels of sociotropy, autonomy, and actual–ideal discrepancy. Depressed Ss evidencing the highest levels of these variables, remitted Ss the next highest, and control Ss the lowest. Both sociotropy and autonomy were significantly correlated with actual–ideal discrepancy. Each of the 3 variables studied accounted for unique variance in current depression. Together they accounted for 48% of the variance in depression scores. This study provides support for the relation of sociotropy, autonomy, and actual–ideal discrepancy to depression, and suggests a need for greater attention to issues of availability and accessibility in the area of depression research.

Document type: 
Article
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A new perspective on youth care programs: Using attachment theory to guide interventions for troubled youth

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1998
Abstract: 

Traditional models of residential care for troubled youth are based on the assumption that their difficult and threatening behaviour needs to be contained and controlled. The authors argue that, despite the usefulness of some traditional treatment strategies when employed within certain contexts, these interventions are often of limited value in working with youth who have developed internal working models of adults as rejecting, punitive and untrustworthy. The reliance of traditional treatment programs on behavior can, in effect, undermine already fragile attachments of troubled youth to adults to develop a sense of personal responsibility for and control of their actions. We propose that attachment theory offers a framework for a fundamentally different approach to working with troubled youth's internal working models of self and other. This article reviews the process of transformation of a "traditional" control-focused program into a program that is guided by attachment theory.

Document type: 
Article
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Suicidal ideation in an adolescent clinical sample: Attachment patterns and clinical implications

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1988
Abstract: 

Investigated the relationship between attachment patterns and suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of 116 adolescents (aged 10–17 yrs). Ss were assessed on level of current ideation through self-report questionnaires. Lethality of methods contemplated was also rated on a subset of the sample (16 Ss) who, in addition to endorsing current suicidal ideation, presented a plan on a diagnostic interview. Quality of attachment to caregivers based on a semistructured clinical interview was assessed using K. Bartholomew's (see record 1990-30882-001) 2-dimensional, 4-category model of attachment. Categorical analyses indicated that youth with predominantly fearful or preoccupied attachment were more likely to endorse suicidal ideation than were predominantly secure or dismissing youth. Severity of suicidal ideation was positively correlated with ratings of fearfulness and negatively correlated with ratings on the secure and dismissing patterns. Greater lethality in methods of contemplated suicide was positively correlated with preoccupied tendencies. The importance of attachment theory for understanding the factors underlying suicidal ideation in troubled youth is discussed and implications for therapeutic intervention are presented.

Document type: 
Article
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Own versus other standpoints in self-regulation: Developmental antecedents and functional consequences

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1999
Abstract: 

An inner audience is an internal representation of other's values, goals, and standards for the self (other standpoint on self). It contrasts with an internal representation of one's own values, goals, and standards for the self (own standpoint on self). Using self-discrepancy theory (E. T. Higgins, see record 1987-34444-001) as a framework to integrate diverse psychological perspectives on this classic distinction, the authors consider the role of own versus other standpoints in self-regulation. They describe developmental shifts and socialization effects on the self-regulatory strength of own and other standpoints. Evidence that individual differences and sex differences in own versus other standpoints for self-regulation relate to different affective and interpersonal vulnerabilities is reviewed. The concepts of identification and introjection are empirically distinguished in a novel way, and therapeutic implications are discussed.

Document type: 
Article
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Self-discrepancy in adolescence: Own and parental standpoints on the self

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1999
Abstract: 

Adolescence is a period of growth in the capacity to represent multiple perspectives on the self. The capacity to represent multiple perspectives may increase the risk of detecting self-discrepancies. This article examines if self-discrepancy is predictive of functioning and if there are gender difference in relation to self-discrepancy and psychological functioning (internalizing and externalizing problems). 41 males and 47 females (aged 14–18 yrs) participated in the study. Ss completed the Selves Questionnaire and the Youth Self-Report. Results confirmed that self-discrepancy, independent of actual-self positivity, was predictive of internalizing and externalizing problems. For adolescent girls, discrepancy with parental standards predicted functioning, regardless of whether these standards were adopted as their own or not. Discrepancy with self-standards that were independent from parents also predicted externalizing problems in girls. For adolescent boys, discrepancy with independent standards, but not parental standards, predicted internalizing problems. The authors suggest that the relevance of own vs parental standards for self-regulation is gender specific.

Document type: 
Article

Introduction to new directions in theory and research of the developing self

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1999
Document type: 
Article

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents with conduct disorder: Sex differences and onset Patterns

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2000
Abstract: 

Examined sex differences in the rate and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trauma exposure, and onset patterns in youth with conduct disorder (CD). 45 male and 31 female 10–17 yr olds admitted to a clinical facility for severe behavior problems completed the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents—Revised (DICA-R) to assess the presence of CD and PTSD. Over one-half of CD youth reported exposure to trauma, yet only 17% met criteria for PTSD. PTSD was more frequent in CD girls (28%) than in boys (10%), and girls experienced greater symptom intensity and anhedonia, difficulty feeling love or affection, and disturbance of s1eep and concentration. Girls more frequently reported sexual assault, while boys were more likely to report accidents, physical assaults, and witnessing the death of a loved one. Retrospective reports indicated that PTSD tended to develop subsequent to CD.

Document type: 
Article

Self–other representations and relational and overt aggression in adolescent girls and boys

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2001
Abstract: 

Aggressive behavior in girls has received far less attention than similar problems in boys. This study examined self-representation, and others' representation of self, as predictors of relational aggression, overt aggression, and assaultive behavior in 32 girls and 52 boys, 10–17 yrs of age, referred for assessment due to significant aggressive and delinquent behavior problems. As predicted, negativity of self-representation predicted relational aggression in girls but not boys. Negativity of self-representation also predicted overt aggression and assaultive behavior in both girls and boys. Parental representations of self were not predictive in this sample; however, negativity of peer representations of self was associated with increased relational aggression in girls and decreased relational aggression in boys. Negativity of peer representations of self also predicted overt aggression and assaultive behavior in both girls and boys. Results suggest that the evaluation of self-other representations may be valuable in the assessment of risk for gender specific patterns of aggression.

Document type: 
Article
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