Psychology, Department of

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Conjugate lateral eye movements: A second look

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1989
Abstract: 

It has been suggested that conjugate lateral eye movements (CLEM) are related to cerebral lateralization. Two types of research have developed: studies examining individual differences (hemisphericity) and studies examining the type of questions used to elicit eye movements (hemispheric specialization). in a 1978 review, Ehrlichman and Weinberger questioned the notion that CLEM is related to cerebral lateralization, particularly with regard to individual differences. However, since their review, a substantial number of studies have been published which are pertinent to the validity of CLEM. the following paper reviewed the validity of CLEM through three avenues, neurophysiological evidence, relationships with other measures of laterality and relation to spatial and verbal stimuli. Overall, it was concluded that there is sufficient evidence to support the CLEM model. Converging evidence from studies on EEG, electrical stimulation, ablation, brain damage, sodium amytal testing, blood flow, positron emission tomography, dichotic listening, and visual half fields was found to be, for the most part, supportive. the results for verbal and spatial task performance were mixed. Studies examining verbal abilities or a verbal to spatial comparison were generally supportive. the findings for spatial abilities alone were more equivocal. Evidence on question-type was found to be weak but positive, with about half the studies showing the predicted asymmetry and the other half reporting nonsignificant results. the implications of an interaction between hemisphericity or characteristic arousal and hemispheric specialization were also discussed. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00207458909002148?journalCode=nes

Document type: 
Article

An analysis of sex differences in depression: The search continues

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1989
Abstract: 

Maintains that J. M. Stoppard's (see record 1989-29654-001) discussion of the adequacy of cognitive/behavioral theories for understanding depression in women (1) fails to adequately consider methodological issues in investigating sex differences in psychopathology and (2) misreads the cognitive/behavioral theories as having a stagnant, simplistic view of psychopathology.

Document type: 
Article
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Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond acutal-self ratings

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1990
Abstract: 

Investigated whether discrepancy scores derived from an idiographic measure of the actual self (AS) and ideal self (IS) are significant predictors of global self-esteem (SE). 41 university students completed (1) a nomothetically based measure that assessed actual–ideal (AI) discrepancy on a standard set of personality characteristics and (2) an idiographically based measure that assessed AI discrepancy between Ss' self-nominated AS and IS attributes. The relation between AI discrepancy on the nomothetic measure and SE was not significant when the variance due to AS ratings was statistically held constant. The relation between AI discrepancy on the idiographic measure and SE was significant even when variance due to the positivity of AS attributes was statistically held constant. Findings underscore the importance of an idiographic approach to evaluating AI discrepancy.

Document type: 
Article

The law of cognitive structure activation: New directions in understanding depression and psychotherapy

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1991
Abstract: 

Comments on C. Sedikides and J. J. Skowronski's (see record 1992-00351-001) article on the law of cognitive structure activation (CSA) and disagrees with some of their statements regarding the implications of the CSA principle for psychotherapy. Alternative positions are offered regarding the applicability of the CSA principle for understanding depression and psychotherapy.

Document type: 
Article
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Integrating the psychodynamic and cognitive selves

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1992
Abstract: 

Discusses self-representations and consciousness, the organization of self-representations, and self-representation and self-esteem in this comment on D. Westen's (see record 1992-35014-001) article on integrating psychodynamic and social-cognitive thinking about the self.

Document type: 
Article
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Attachment and conduct disorder: The Response Programme.

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1993
Abstract: 

An increasing number of youths are being identified as suffering from behavioral problems that cause difficulties in their family and peer relations, which in turn reduce their chances of academic and vocational success. The common diagnosis given to these disaffiliated youths is conduct disorder. A community-oriented program designed to ensure long-term care for these youths is described. The program is designed to focus members of the youth's environment on the attachment and affiliation issues related to his/her current functioning and needs. The findings of a 6-mo follow-up of 89 program participants indicate that communities, caregivers, and youths responded positively to the program. Caregivers reported significant reductions in a broad range of psychiatric symptoms in youths, and youths reported a significant reduction in symptoms of conduct disorder.

Long term outcome of an attachment-based program for conduct disorder

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1994
Abstract: 

Assessed the impact of a community-based program for youths with conduct disordered behavior and reveiwed the effectiveness of the program for 203 participating youths (aged 10–17 yrs) at 6, 12, and 18 mo postdischarge. The response program is based on the view that attachment issues are central in understanding and providing care for youths with conduct disorder. The program begins with a 30-day residential stay during which a multidisciplinary team works with the youth and the community to come to a full understanding of the developmental and family history of the youth, the nature of the youth's problems, and the functioning of the immediate and wider social community. The Ontario Child Health Study Scales were used to evaluate and monitor presence and severity of symptoms. Caretakers reported significantly reduced levels of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at all follow-up intervals.

Document type: 
Article

Conduct disorder and substance use disorder: Comorbidity in a clinical sample of preadolescents and adolescents

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1995
Abstract: 

Examined the rate of comorbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorder in a clinical sample of 74 youth. Data reveal no significant differences in the incidence of comorbidity between younger (aged 10–13) and older (aged 13–27) Ss. Among Ss who met criteria for conduct disorder, 52% also met criteria for a substance use disorder. Odds ratios indicated that the probability of comorbidity of conduct and substance use disorders was higher in the younger group. Substance abuse and dependence tend to develop rapidly following first use, suggesting that a slim window of opportunity exists to prevent substance disorders once drug use has begun.

Document type: 
Article

Self-referent versus other-referent information processing in dysphoric, clinically depressed and remitted depressed subjects

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Examined the processing of responses directed toward the self versus others by dysphoric, clinically depressed and remitted depressed Ss. In Exp 1, 30 dysphoric Ss found positive and negative responses toward the self equally informative. 30 nondysphoric Ss found positive responses toward the self more informative. When responses were directed toward others, dysphorics found positive responses more informative than negative responses, while nondysphorics found positive and negative responses directed toward others equally informative. Exp 2 replicated these results with 27 clinically depressed and 27 nondysphoric Ss, showing that remitted depressed Ss found positive responses more informative, regardless of direction to self or others. Results suggest that positive and negative constructs are differentially accessible for these groups.

Document type: 
Article
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The effects of hemispheric asymmetries and depression on the perception of emotion

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
1996
Abstract: 

Investigated hemispheric asymmetries in the perception of positive and negative emotion. The moderating effect of depression on hemispheric asymmetries was also examined. 40 undergraduates were presented with happy and sad faces using a bilateral visual half-field design. 18 Ss were classified as depressed and 22 as nondepressed, based on scores on the Beck Depression Inventory. For nondepressed Ss, a right hemisphere advantage emerged for the speed of processing open- and close-mouth sad expressions. For depressed Ss, a right hemisphere advantage emerged for the speed of processing open-mouth sad expressions. In addition, a right hemisphere advantage for accuracy in identifying sad expressions was found for all Ss. No visual field differences were found for processing happy expressions.

Document type: 
Article
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