Interactive Arts and Technology, School of (SIAT)

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The School of Interactive Arts and Technology, SIAT, is located at the Surrey campus of SFU. There are two subcollections in SIAT. Please see below.

Comparing Leaning-Based Motion Cueing Interfaces for Virtual Reality Locomotion

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2017-03-18
Abstract: 

In this paper, we describe a user study comparing five different locomotion interfaces for virtual reality locomotion. We compared a standard non-motion cueing interface, Joystick (Xbox), with four motion cueing interfaces, NaviChair (stool with springs), MuvMan (sit/stand active stool), Head-Directed (Oculus Rift DK2), and Swivel Chair (everyday office chair with leaning capability). Each interface had two degrees of freedom to move forward/backward and rotate using velocity (rate) control. The aim of this mixed methods study was to better understand relevant user experience factors and guide the design of future locomotion interfaces. This study employed methods from HCI to provide an understanding of why users behave a certain way while using the interface and to unearth any new issues with the design. Participants were tasked to search for objects in a virtual city while they provided talk-aloud feedback and we logged their behaviour. Subsequently, they completed a post-experimental questionnaire on their experience. We found that the qualitative themes of control, usability, and experience echoed the results of the questionnaire, providing internal validity. The quantitative measures revealed the Joystick to be significantly more comfortable and precise than the motion cueing interfaces. However, the qualitative feedback and interviews showed this was due to the reduced perceived controllability and safety of the motion cueing interfaces. Designers of these interfaces should consider using a backrest if users need to lean backwards and avoid using velocity-control for rotations when using HMDs.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Feminizing Oswald De Andrade’s Manifesto Antropófago and Vasconcelo’s Raza Cosmica : The Videos of Sonia Andrade and Pola Weiss.

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-03-30
Abstract: 

The term 'mestizaje' has been broadly used to denote the hybrid nature of Latin American cultures. Two of the most notable engagements with hybridity came from the Mexican José Vasconcelos' La Raza Cósmica (1925) and the Brazilian Oswald de Andrade's Manifesto Antropófago (1928). Both of these modernist intellectuals developed a strategy to resist western colonial domination and to embrace a unique culture that blended multiple histories, ethnicities, cosmologies, and practices. This paper addresses how, in the 1970s, Brazilian video artist Sonia Andrade (b. 1935) and Mexican video artist Pola Weiss (b. 1947-1990) cannibalize and embody Andrade and Vasconcelos' manifestos from a feminized perspective. Following the work of the Chilean critic Nelly Richard, feminization is understood as a process that breaks down the barriers of biological determinism and fixed symbolic roles, becoming thus a practice of continued contestation which is not only relevant to those who define themselves as women but also to a multitude of experience that contest normative and fixed definitions of sex, race or ethnicity. From this perspective, we also position Andrade and Weiss' work as part of a meaningful dialogue with those Chicana scholars who feminized the concept of mestizaje during the second half of the twentieth century.

Most famously, by the mid 1980s, Chicana scholars Gloria Anzaldúa and Chela Sandoval re-engaged with the concept of mestizaje to theorize their experiences as mixed-queer-third-world feminists of color in the United States. In particular, Anzaldúa's new mestiza consciousness, which stressed the potential of crossbred, queer and indigenous peoples to propose a new angle of vision, namely a new critical way of challenging the binary structures imposed by western patriarchy, became foundational for the development of Chicana scholarship. Anzaldúa's new mestiza consciousness went beyond biological definitions of mestizaje; she defined a holistic epistemology as "a more whole perspective, one that includes rather than excludes." Building from Anzaldúa's work, Sandoval proposed an oppositional consciousness as a way to explore "affinities inside of difference." Sandoval's oppositional methodology describes a set of strategies that seek to build bridges and trace affinities between the work of what he calls "postcolonial US third-world feminist criticism" and canonical western postmodern cultural theorists in order to put an end to "academic apartheid." Indeed, Sandoval's work is central to Donna Haraway's Manifesto for Cyborgs (1985), the foundational text for the development of cyborg feminism. For Haraway, the cyborg is a hybrid between organism and machine, "a matter of fiction and lived experience that changes what counts as women's experience in the late twentieth century." Significantly, one of the central objectives of Haraway's Manifesto for Cyborgs is a broader political project aimed at transgressing boundaries and undoing the dualisms and essentialisms of those dominant intellectual and cultural traditions that dictate the construction of hierarchies of difference.

However, it is noteworthy that in the chicana-feminist-queer-cyborg-third-world re-engagement with the concept of mestizaje/cyborg, the voices and experiences of Latin American women from the South are excluded. Consequently, this paper seeks to address this omission by discussing two emblematic videos by Sonia Andrade, Sem título (1975) and Pola Weiss, Somos Mujeres (1978) respectively, while situating the artists and their works in geo-historical and socio-politico-cultural contexts. In doing so, we collaboratively map diverse re-engagements with the concept of mestizaje (including hybrids of self and technology) developed by Latin American women as a critique of dominant social structures. And, in the spirit of Chela Sandoval's search for commonalities of strength and affinity, this paper seeks to find those commonalities of strength and affinity among women in the Americas who feminized the concept of mestizaje during the second half of the twentieth century.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

Imagining the Cyborg in Náhuatl: Reading the Videos of Pola Weiss

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2015-10-20
Abstract: 

By 1985, when Donna Haraway's essay, "A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology and Socialist-Feminism in the 1980s," presented the cyborg as a hybrid between organism and machine and an alternative model of feminine subjectivity, the Mexican independent media producer Pola Weiss had been challenging normative female experiences and relations between self and technology through her video work for nearly a decade. In this article, I propose to explore Weiss's work through the lens of Haraway's in order to collaborate with recent efforts to locate Weiss's practice more meaningfully in the histories of media arts. By placing particular attention on Weiss's conceptualization of her camera as a hybrid coupling between organism and machine, I use Haraway's Manifesto for Cyborgs to suggest a frame in which to understand Weiss's practice as critique of the dominant intellectual traditions and conventions of representation that have produced and reproduced hierarchies of race, class, sex, and gender difference in exico. In doing so, I also explore how Weiss's experiments with televisual images challenged normative female experiences and relations between self and technology. Ultimately, in proposing Haraway's work as a vehicle through which to understand the work of Weiss, I also seek to find affinities between the two women as they inhabited parallel worlds and shared similar concerns.

Document type: 
Article
File(s): 

A Hierarchical Model of Design Knowledge

Author: 
Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Abstract: 

Despite the central role of knowledge in design, there is a dearth of research on the typology, intrinsic structure and composition of design knowledge. This results in an indeterminate epistemological picture of design outcomes. To address the need for effective conceptualizations, we propose a hierarchical model of design knowledge, which stratifies the different bodies of knowledge into ranked levels. We illustrate some of the benefits of our model and compare it with existing hierarchical models of knowledge in non-design fields of inquiry.

Document type: 
Technical Report

Lyssna: a design fiction to reframe food waste

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-06
Abstract: 

In this paper we propose the design fiction, Lyssna, a diegetic prototype in the form of a hearing aid for your refrigerator that aims at reintegrating lost aspects of food. Lyssna is based on home studies of food practices informed by Mediation Theory and Theories of Practice. Our aim is to explore an alternative framing from behavioral theories for designing for food waste. In the process, we hope to open up the design space for enabling reconfigurations of everyday food practices.

Document type: 
Article

Behind the Lens: A Visual Exploration of Epistemological Commitments in HCI Research on the Home

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-06
Abstract: 

 

 In this pictorial, we propose an alternative approach to investigating human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers’ epistemological commitments in research on the home. While researchers’ commitments can be discussed through textual aspects of their research, in this pictorial we conduct a pattern analysis of visual elements as a productive way to further inquire into such kinds of commitments. By analyzing visual elements from 121 works in HCI research on the home, we identify seven types of observers, which can be associated with epistemological commitments in research. We also propose two new complementary observers: the absent observer and the protagonist observer.

Document type: 
Article

Productive Frictions: Moving from Digital to Material Prototyping and Low-Volume Production for Design Research

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-06
Abstract: 

In this paper we discuss the low-volume production of an interaction design research product known as the tilting bowl. The form of the tilting bowl was designed with 3D modeling tools and utilized digital fabrication for rapid prototyping. The final form was produced in a small number of glazed ceramic forms with embedded electronics and actuators. We focus on the lessons we learned from the challenges and design opportunities that arose in moving from digital processes to ceramic processes. We reflected on these lessons and developed thematic notions we refer to as frictions. These include shifting constraints, naïve expertise, manual automation, and dynamic materiality. The contributions of this paper are new design insights into the combination of digital and material processes for studio based prototyping and low-volume production and adds to the emerging relevance of digital fabrication, physical fabrication, and physical materials to interaction design and HCI research.

Document type: 
Article

Living In A Prototype: A Reconfigured Space

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-05
Abstract: 

In this paper, we present a twenty-three months autobiographical design project of converting a Mercedes Sprinter van into a camper van. This project allows us to investigate the complexities and nuances of a case where people engage in a process of making, transforming and adapting a space they live in. This example opens a radically different and productive context for revisiting concepts that are currently at the center of human-computer interaction (HCI) research: ubiquitous computing, home automation, smart homes, and the Internet of Things. We offer six qualities characterizing the evolving relationship between the makers and the lived-in environment: the van. We conclude with a discussion on the two themes of living in a reconfigured home and prototype qualities in a reconfigured space, and a critical reflection around the theme of the invariably unfinished home.

Document type: 
Article

From Research Prototype to Research Product

Peer reviewed: 
No, item is not peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-05
Abstract: 

Prototypes and prototyping have had a long and important history in the HCI community and have played a highly significant role in creating technology that is easier and more fulfilling to use. Yet, as focus in HCI is expanding to investigate complex matters of human relationships with technology over time in the intimate and contested contexts of everyday life, the notion of a ‘prototype’ may not be fully sufficient to support these kinds of inquiries. We propose the research product as an extension and evolution of the research prototype to support generative inquiries in this emerging research area. We articulate four interrelated qualities of research products—inquiry-driven, finish, fit, and independent—and draw on these qualities to describe and analyze five different yet related design research cases we have collectively conducted over the past six years. We conclude with a discussion of challenges and opportunities for crafting research products and the implications they suggest for future design-oriented HCI research.

Document type: 
Article

A Short Guide To Material Speculation: Actual Artifacts For Critical Inquiry

Peer reviewed: 
Yes, item is peer reviewed.
Date created: 
2016-03
Abstract: 

Speculative and fictional approaches have long been implemented in human-computer interaction and design techniques through scenarios, prototypes, forecasting, and envisionments. Recently, speculative and critical design approaches have reflectively explored and questioned possible, and preferable futures in HCI research. We propose a complementary concept – material speculation – that utilizes actual and situated design artifacts in the everyday as a site of critical inquiry. We see the literary theory of possible worlds and the related concept of the counterfactual as informative to this work. We briefly present three examples of interaction design artifacts that can be viewed as material speculations. 

Document type: 
Article